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2013 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems & Technology
15 - 18 October 2013 Waltham, Massachusetts USA
Tutorial: Phased Array Antenna Measurements
Phased Array Antenna Measurements Dr. Alan J. Fenn, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Mr. Dayel Garneski, Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, Dr. Chuck Kryzak, Lockheed Martin Fellow, Syracuse Overview Accurate characterization of phased array antenna systems, typically in an indoor anechoic chamber environment, is desired prior to field deployment for communications and radar applications.  This tutorial reviews various measurement techniques currently being applied to characterize phased array antennas - both for determination of the far-field patterns and for element diagnostics and array alignment.  Theory behind the methods and examples of measurements using the following techniques will be discussed: Planar near-field Spherical near-field Compact range and far-field Focused near-field - adaptive array Other phased array measurement topics including array mutual coupling, scan reflection coefficient, and element gain measurements will be presented. Attendees will receive the following tutorial materials: Book:  A.J. Fenn, Adaptive Antennas and Phased Arrays for Radar and Communications, Artech, 2008 CD:   Tutorial presentation slides
Part 1: Phased Array Antenna Measurements Using Planar Near-Field Scanning Alan J. Fenn, PhD, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, USA Outline Introduction / background Basic array parameters and measurement o Array mutual coupling o Scan reflection/transmission coefficients o Element gain Phased array antenna measurement techniques o Introduction o Measurement Techniques Far-field Compact range Focused near-range Near-field scanning o Planar near-field scanning for low-sidelobe arrays Theory Results Summary Part 2: Integration, Calibration and Verification of Phased Array Subsystems in a Planar Near-Field Facility Dayel Garneski, Raytheon, USA Outline Phased array architectures Examples of deployed systems Phased array subsystem integration tasks Phased array subsystem calibrations: o Element state o Array magnitude/phase taper o Time delay unit o Subaperture channel balance Phased array subsystem verification Back projection:  resolution limit, adaptation to array model, usage in calibration Phased array calibration example Examples of measurement errors: o Temperature drift o Leakage o Periodic errors o Beam pointing Power density mapping
Part 3: A Spherical Near Field Facility to Support Calibration of Analog and Digital Array Antennas and Verification of System Performance Dr. Charles Kryzak, PhD, Lockheed Martin, USA Abstract The development of independent digitally controlled transmitter and receiver phased array channel architectures has driven LM to address the difficult aspect of array-level channel balancing and equalization.  To support this development, LM-Ground Based Radar Division has designed and constructed a very large “fully RF-shielded” Spherical Near-field Anechoic Chamber facility at its Syracuse, NY location.   The commissioning of this facility began in June 2013. The choice of spherical near-field scanning was made to enable the measurement of far sidelobes and direct backlobes of the radar antenna pattern.  The RF shielding is rated up through 18 GHz and the RF absorber is rated from the lower UHF through 40 GHz.  The chamber absorber and HVAC system are designed to sustain average incident power levels in excess of 1500 Watts/sq-meter, allowing for operation of the antenna at high peak levels. The electronic data acquisition system was designed to address the testing of phased arry systems with a variety of architectures:  either analog-controlled or fully-independent digitally controlled transmit functions plus digital I/Q channelized receive functions.  To establish accurate pair-wise channel amplitude and phase mismatch, careful attention has been paid to transmit and receive “real-time” pulse I/Q characterization, together with receive channel amplitude and phase ripple equalization. Techniques have been developed which address the more difficult test requirements dictated by independent “distributed” waveform generation which are driven by the subtle stable reference receiver-function required to remove residual measurement phase wander. Part 4:  Adaptive Phased Array Antenna Measurements Using Focused Near-Field Techniques Alan J. Fenn, PhD, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, USA Outline Introduction / background Adaptive array testing considerations Comparison of far-field and near-field interference Focused near-field adaptive nulling test concept and simulations Adaptive phased array test bed and measurements Summary Biography Alan Fenn is a senior staff member in the RF and Quantum Systems Technology Group at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  He is deputy manager for antenna measurements in the RF System Test Facility at Lincoln Laboratory.  He has conducted extensive research in the area of phased array antennas.  He joined Lincoln Laboratory in 1981 and was a member of the Space Radar Technology Group from 1982 to 1991, where his primary research was in adaptive phased-array antenna design and testing.  From 1992 to 1999 he was an assistant group leader in the Radio Frequency Technology Group where he managed programs involving RF measurements of atmospheric effects on satellite communications.  From 1978 to 1981, he was a senior engineer in the Antenna Systems and Design/Analysis Group in the RF Systems Department at Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colorado.  He received a B.S. from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1974, and an M.S. in 1976 and a Ph.D. in 1978 from The Ohio State University, Columbus, all in electrical engineering. Dr. Fenn was elected a Fellow of the IEEE in 2000 for his contributions to the theory and practice of adaptive phased-array antennas.  He is currently serving as the Technical Program Chair of the 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems & Technology.  He was the Technical Program Chair of the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems & Technology.  He was technical co-chair of the 2001 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Symposium.  He has served as an associate editor in the area of adaptive antennas for the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation.  In 1990 he was a co-recipient of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society’s H.A. Wheeler Applications Prize Paper Award.  He also received the IEEE/URSI-sponsored 1994 International Symposium on Antennas (JINA 94) Award.  Dr. Fenn has authored the book Adaptive Antennas and Phased Arrays for Radar and Communications as well as two other books and numerous journal articles, patents, and short-course lectures and conference presentations on phased array antennas. Biography Dayel Garneski is an Engineering Fellow with Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) in El Segundo, California.  His current responsibilities include active array subsystem design, development of advanced active array near field integration and test capabilities, and technical leadership of the integration and test staff.  He also provides support as a subject matter expert to numerous Raytheon active array production and development programs. He joined the legacy Hughes Aircraft Company in 1979, and has over 20 years of experience in the development, integration, calibration, and verification testing of phased array antenna subsystems, primarily in near-field test facilities.  He implemented the near-field transformation processing codes used in most active array production programs at SAS, as well as back projection techniques for array calibration and diagnostics, active array calibration techniques, volumetric power density mapping, and diagnostic imaging of array scattering for radar cross section control.  He is a Senior Member of the Antenna Measurement Techniques Association and serves a a technical reviewer for the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society.  He received the BSEE from the University of Southern California in 1983 and MSEE from UCLA in 1986. Biography Chuck Kryzak is a Lockheed Martin Fellow and Hardware-Systems Architect under Ground Base Radar Systems in Syracuse, NY.  He received a Ph.D. in Physics from RPI, Troy, NY and jointly served as Research Assistant under the EE department.  He is the lead Surveillance Radar (SR) antenna aperture designer for the Tri-National “US Army’s” MEADS SR/MFCR Missile Defense System, and has designed and developed the associated RF, radar timing, and digital control/data distribution networks applicable to both SR and MFCR.  He lead the design group, developed high resolution radiating element models, and simulated the full SR phased array using a combination of FEM, MoM, and FDTD techniques.  The 3D EM array simulation and optimization established the SR array front-side/back-side beam and null generation performance capabilities, and margins, against program mission requirements. He is directly responsible for all the LM Syracuse’s Spherical Near-Field chamber performance specification, chamber development, and is technical lead for the MEADS SR numerous RF receiver modules and optical transceivers data/control distribution network modules required by LM’s independent digitally controlled phase array architectures supporting both adaptive beam-space beam-forming and co-operative multi-static radar/sensor applications.  He designed, developed, and reduced to full production the fully ruggedized Quad-Channel Optic Transceivers which are architecture and production baselines for the entire tactical avionic digital distribution networks within the Joint Strke Fighter (JSF) and F-16 Block 60 aircraft. His research included the design and demonstration of the following  wide dynamic range optical RF transmission, the development of MEMS based optical switching techniques for avionic optical system self-test, design/demonstration of high current DC-DC switch mode power converters, design of FPGA and DSP based modular real-time digital processor functions, and the design of both ceramic and polyimide thin film digital and analog hybrids.  He is a member of Sigma Xi, IEEE, the American Physical Socity, and has nine patents and publications related to optical array transceiver design, MMIC wafer processing, and non-blocking computer network switching architectures.
Attendees of this tutorial will also receive a hardback copy of the book “Adaptive Antennas and Phased Arrays for Radar and Communications” by Alan J. Fenn