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2013 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems & Technology
15 - 18 October 2013 Waltham, Massachusetts USA
Tutorial: Smart Antennas
Smart Antennas Dr. Frank B. Gross Boeing Technical Fellow Professor and Chair Electrical Engineering Georgia Southern University Abstract - Smart antennas are a new application of the age old art of phased arrays.  Smart antennas have found their way into modern systems including secure communications, direction finding, reconfigurable antennas, waveform diversity and MIMO systems.   What turns a common phased array into a smart antenna is the inclusion of several smart processing algorithms that enable dynamic and optimum performance.  In order to fully appreciate the discipline of smart antennas one should be versed in the arts of electromagnetics, antennas, propagation, array processing, channel characterization, random processes, spectral estimation, and adaptive methods. Smart antennas can roughly be divided into six groups:  1) Adaptive Arrays, 2) Switched Beam Arrays, 3) Cognitive Antennas, 4) Reconfigurable Antennas, 5) Reconfigurable Antenna Surfaces, and 6) Smart Vector Antennas.   Smart antennas can provide higher system capacities, higher signal-to- interference ratios, and greater frequency reuse in cellular systems.  They can be used for adaptively tracking sources of interest while simultaneously nulling interferers. Smart antennas can be self-healing and adaptive to the environment so as to always maintain optimum performance.  This tutorial assumes the students have little prior knowledge in smart antennas.  We will explain smart antennas from the most basic foundation including a discussion of all the elements necessary in order to design and characterize a working system.  We will discuss basic electromagnetic principles, array theory, propagation, interferers, random processes and noise, propagation channel behavior, angle-of-arrival estimation, geolocation, and a host of array processing algorithms.   Several examples will be given throughout. Biography Dr. Gross has over 34 years of experience in the areas of beamforming, array processing, array design, adaptive arrays, smart antennas, electromagnetics, antennas, communications, and signal processing. He has served as university professor, SAIC Chief Scientist, and Boeing Technical Fellow. He has worked on many projects including satellite beamforming, frequency selective surfaces (FSS), radomes, metamaterials, radar waveform design, shallow-water synthetic aperture sonar (SAS), passive radar receiver design and evaluation, FM-CW fuze systems, satellite antennas including helices, fractal arrays, broadband antennas, and direction finding antennas.  He has written several propagation and EM simulation  tools including the use of the moment method (MoM), finite elements (FEM), finite  differences time domain (FDTD), physical optics (PO), geometrical optics (GO),  and the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD).   He has served as PI or Boeing Technical Fellow on numerous projects working with SOCOM, DARPA, ONR, NCSC/NSWC, NAVAIR, NASA-Langley, NASA-Kennedy, GTRI, the Electronic Communications Lab/Harry Diamond Labs, and the Electroscience Lab at Ohio State.  He helped to develop “quiet” waveforms for terrain following/terrain avoidance (TF/TA) radar for SOCOM which supported the “Silent Night” program.  He also worked with NASA/Langley on developing their pulsed anechoic chamber for radar cross section measurements.    Dr. Gross has formerly served for 18 years as a professor at the Florida State University teaching courses on propagation, antennas, smart antennas, numerical methods, radar, sonar, signals and systems, circuits, microwave engineering, and electromechanical dynamics.  He currently is Professor and Chair in Electrical Engineering at Georgia Southern University. Dr. Gross has published over 60 journal articles, papers, and reports on the general topics of electromagnetics, electrostatics, antennas, and arrays.   He is the author of the 2005 McGraw-Hill book entitled, “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications with Matlab”.  He is the author of a chapter on “Smart Antennas” in the 2007 3rd addition of the “Antenna Engineering Handbook” edited by John Volakis. He wrote the chapter on “Bessel Functions” for the Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical & Electronics Engineering in 1998.   He is also the Editor-in-Chief for the “Frontiers in Antennas” book by McGraw-Hill, 2011.    
Attendees of this tutorial will also receive a hardback copy of the book “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications: With MATLAB” by Frank Gross.