Microwave Array Beamforming:  Analog, Digital, and Photonic Dr. Hans Steyskal, Arcon; Dr. Jeffrey Herd, MIT Lincoln Laboratory; Dr. Paul Juodawlkis, MIT Lincoln Laboratory   Overview  This tutorial covers the fundamentals of microwave phased array beamforming with analog, digital, and photonic implementations. The course will first review the basics of phased arrays, including electronic beam steering and control, error effects and calibration, pattern synthesis, and wide bandwidth implementations. Analog beamforming techniques such as corporate feed networks and multiple beam lens-based approaches will be described. Digital beamforming (DBF) array techniques will then be described in detail. DBF arrays digitize the received signals at the element level, thus preserving the total information available at the aperture, and then process these signals in the digital domain to form the desired beams. The course will review basic DBF system requirements and highlight several practical applications which are difficult or impossible to perform in the analog domain. Photonics applications for phased arrays will be discussed, including an overview of the current state of the art. Specific applications such as wideband, high dynamic range signal remoting and wideband true time delay beamforming will be highlighted. Finally, a set of array beamforming design examples will be shown which emphasize the tradeoffs that exist between the analog, digital, and photonic beamforming alternatives.  Biographies   Dr. Hans Steyskal   Hans Steyskal received the degrees Civ. Ing., Tekn. Lic., and Tekn. Dr. in electrical engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden in 1963, 1970 and 1973, respectively. In 1962, he joined the Swedish National Defence Research establishment (FOA), where he investigated microwave radiation and scattering problems. In 1980 he joined the AF Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, where he pursued research in electromagnetics, phased array antennas, and digital beamforming.  In 2007 he retired from the position AFRL Senior Scientist, Antennas and now works as a consultant. Dr. Steyskal has held a part-time position as Adjunct Professor in Antenna Technology at KTH in 1996-2004, and has been a Visiting Scientist at the Polytechnic University of New York and at The Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland. He has served two terms as Associate Editor for the IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation. He is an AFRL Fellow and an IEEE Life Fellow. Dr. Jeffrey Herd   Jeffrey S. Herd (Senior Member, IEEE) received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA, in 1982, 1983, and 1989, respectively. He is Leader of the RF Technology Group, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA, USA, which develops and demonstrates innovative RF technologies as solutions to emerging national security needs in radar, electronic warfare, and communications. In addition to directing these group activities, he is the laboratory lead for internally funded research on RF systems and technology. Prior to joining MIT Lincoln Laboratory, he worked with the Sensors Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, USA, where he developed phased array antenna technologies, including wideband scanning arrays, multifrequency antennas, conformal arrays, and digital beamforming arrays. From 1992 to 1994, he was a Visiting Scientist with the Institute for High Frequency Technology, German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. He has published 46 journal and conference papers, and is an inventor on three issued patents. Dr. Herd served as an Administrative Committee member for the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, and has been on the steering committees for multiple international symposia. He is General Chairman of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology in Boston, MA, USA, and recently served on the National Academy of Science panel for Active Scientific Uses of the Radio Spectrum.     Dr. Paul Juodawlkis Paul W. Juodawlkis received the B.S. degree from Michigan Technological University, Houghton, the M.S. degree from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, and the Ph.D. degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, all in electrical engineering.  He is presently Assistant Leader of the Quantum Information and Integrated Nanosystems Group at MIT Lincoln Laboratory where he is working to develop photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology for application to microwave sensing, optical communication, laser radar, inertial navigation, and quantum information systems.  His research efforts have focused on the development of optical sampling techniques for photonic analog-to- digital converters (ADCs), quantum-well electrorefractive modulators, high-power waveguide photodiodes, and high-power semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and their application in mode-locked lasers and narrow-linewidth external-cavity lasers.  Prior to his research and leadership in photonics activities at Lincoln Laboratory (1999-present), he served as a radar systems engineer on a multi-sensor airborne testbed program at Lincoln Laboratory (1988-1993), and as a member of the Ultrafast Optical Communications Laboratory (UFOCL) at Georgia Tech (1993-1999).  Dr. Juodawlkis is a Fellow of the Optical Society (OSA) and a Senior Member of the IEEE.  He has authored or coauthored over 130 peer-reviewed journal and conference publications.  He has participated on a number of technical program committees, including serving as Program Co-Chair (2010) and General Co-Chair (2013) of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).  He served as an elected member of the IEEE Photonics Society Board of Governors (2011-2013) and is presently serving as Vice President of Membership for the Society.
Tuesday, 18 October 8:00 AM - 12:00 Noon Eden Vale Ballroom B
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology
18 - 21 October 2016 Waltham, MA USA
Microwave Array Beamforming:  Analog, Digital, and Photonic Dr. Hans Steyskal, Arcon; Dr. Jeffrey Herd, MIT Lincoln Laboratory; Dr. Paul Juodawlkis, MIT Lincoln Laboratory   Overview  This tutorial covers the fundamentals of microwave phased array beamforming with analog, digital, and photonic implementations. The course will first review the basics of phased arrays, including electronic beam steering and control, error effects and calibration, pattern synthesis, and wide bandwidth implementations. Analog beamforming techniques such as corporate feed networks and multiple beam lens- based approaches will be described. Digital beamforming (DBF) array techniques will then be described in detail. DBF arrays digitize the received signals at the element level, thus preserving the total information available at the aperture, and then process these signals in the digital domain to form the desired beams. The course will review basic DBF system requirements and highlight several practical applications which are difficult or impossible to perform in the analog domain. Photonics applications for phased arrays will be discussed, including an overview of the current state of the art. Specific applications such as wideband, high dynamic range signal remoting and wideband true time delay beamforming will be highlighted. Finally, a set of array beamforming design examples will be shown which emphasize the tradeoffs that exist between the analog, digital, and photonic beamforming alternatives.  Biographies   Dr. Hans Steyskal   Hans Steyskal received the degrees Civ. Ing., Tekn. Lic., and Tekn. Dr. in electrical engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden in 1963, 1970 and 1973, respectively. In 1962, he joined the Swedish National Defence Research establishment (FOA), where he investigated microwave radiation and scattering problems. In 1980 he joined the AF Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, where he pursued research in electromagnetics, phased array antennas, and digital beamforming.  In 2007 he retired from the position AFRL Senior Scientist, Antennas and now works as a consultant. Dr. Steyskal has held a part-time position as Adjunct Professor in Antenna Technology at KTH in 1996-2004, and has been a Visiting Scientist at the Polytechnic University of New York and at The Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland. He has served two terms as Associate Editor for the IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation. He is an AFRL Fellow and an IEEE Life Fellow. Dr. Jeffrey Herd   Jeffrey S. Herd (Senior Member, IEEE) received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA, in 1982, 1983, and 1989, respectively. He is Leader of the RF Technology Group, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA, USA, which develops and demonstrates innovative RF technologies as solutions to emerging national security needs in radar, electronic warfare, and communications. In addition to directing these group activities, he is the laboratory lead for internally funded research on RF systems and technology. Prior to joining MIT Lincoln Laboratory, he worked with the Sensors Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, USA, where he developed phased array antenna technologies, including wideband scanning arrays, multifrequency antennas, conformal arrays, and digital beamforming arrays. From 1992 to 1994, he was a Visiting Scientist with the Institute for High Frequency Technology, German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. He has published 46 journal and conference papers, and is an inventor on three issued patents. Dr. Herd served as an Administrative Committee member for the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, and has been on the steering committees for multiple international symposia. He is General Chairman of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology in Boston, MA, USA, and recently served on the National Academy of Science panel for Active Scientific Uses of the Radio Spectrum.     Dr. Paul Juodawlkis Paul W. Juodawlkis received the B.S. degree from Michigan Technological University, Houghton, the M.S. degree from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, and the Ph.D. degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, all in electrical engineering.  He is presently Assistant Leader of the Quantum Information and Integrated Nanosystems Group at MIT Lincoln Laboratory where he is working to develop photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology for application to microwave sensing, optical communication, laser radar, inertial navigation, and quantum information systems.  His research efforts have focused on the development of optical sampling techniques for photonic analog- to-digital converters (ADCs), quantum-well electrorefractive modulators, high-power waveguide photodiodes, and high-power semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and their application in mode- locked lasers and narrow-linewidth external-cavity lasers.  Prior to his research and leadership in photonics activities at Lincoln Laboratory (1999-present), he served as a radar systems engineer on a multi- sensor airborne testbed program at Lincoln Laboratory (1988-1993), and as a member of the Ultrafast Optical Communications Laboratory (UFOCL) at Georgia Tech (1993-1999).  Dr. Juodawlkis is a Fellow of the Optical Society (OSA) and a Senior Member of the IEEE.  He has authored or coauthored over 130 peer-reviewed journal and conference publications.  He has participated on a number of technical program committees, including serving as Program Co-Chair (2010) and General Co-Chair (2013) of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).  He served as an elected member of the IEEE Photonics Society Board of Governors (2011-2013) and is presently serving as Vice President of Membership for the Society.
Tuesday, 18 October 8:00 AM - 12:00 Noon Eden Vale Ballroom B
Tutorial Session 1:  Microwave Array Beamforming:  Analog, Digital, and Photonic
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems  and Technology
18 - 21 October 2016 Waltham, MA USA