Friday,  21 October 8:00 AM - 12:00 Noon Cambridge Room

Phased-Arrays: Basics, Past Accomplishments, Amazing Breakthroughs and Future Trends

Dr. Eli Brookner: Raytheon Co. (Retired)

Overview This tutorial covers: Array basics; Digital Beam Forming (DBF): Advantages of DBF; limited scanning; advances in radars and phased-arrays leading up to the latest amazing breakthroughs and future trends, including metamaterials, graphene, DBF, micromachining, very low cost arrays, signal processing. Array Basics: Array phase scanning, embedded element gain, array factor, subarray time delay steering, thinned arrays, array elements, array blindness, mutual coupling, feeds; grating lobes due to forming multiple beams at the subarray level; how overlapped subarrays reduces these grating lobes. Digital beam forming (DBF) Basics: Advantages of; DBF at subarray and element level. Systems: 3, 4, 6 face “Aegis” systems developed by China, Japan, Australia, Netherlands, USA; Patriot now has GaN AESA providing 360o coverage; S/X-band AMDR provides 30 times the sensitivity and number of tracks as SPY-1D(V). Low Cost Packaging: Raytheon, MIT-Lincoln-Lab./MA-COM and Rockwell Collins developing low cost S and X- band flat panel arrays using COTS: PCBs and commercial packaging. Digital Beam Forming (DBF): Israel, Thales and Australia AESAs have an A/D for every element channel; Raytheon developing element level mixer-less direct RF A/D having >400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth, reconfigurable between S and X-band;  Lincoln Lab increases spurious free dynamic range of receiver plus A/D by 40 dB. Materials: GaN can now put 5X to 10X the power of GaAs in same footprint, 38% less costly, 100 million hr MTBF. Potential continuation of Moore’s Law: 1. via Spintronics - which could revolutionize computer architecture away from John von Neumann model, 2. via Memristor – which potentially allows one to do what human brain does in a shoe box instead of a computer the size of a city requiring a nuclear power plant, 3. via Graphene which has potential for Thz clock speed transistors, or 4. via Quantum Computing - which has the potential of orders of magnitude advance in computation power per 2 years. Metamaterials: 2-D Electronically Steered Antennas at 20 and 30 GHz size of laptop, cost goal only $1K  (remains to prove low cost and reliability), explained in simple terms, to be used in worldwide coverage satellite internet systems of the future, companies like Google, Qualcomm and O3b working on it; 2-20GHz stealthing by absorption simulated using <1 mm coating; target made invisible over 50% bandwidth at L-band; Army 250-505 MHZ conformal antenna with a /20 thickness; Focus beyond diffraction limit: 6X at 0.38 μm; Provides isolation: Between antennas having 2.5 cm separation equivalent to 1m separation; ; used for phased array WAIM; Negative Index of Refraction: For n-doped graphene, first such material found in nature. Very Low Cost Systems: Valeo Raytheon  (now Valeo Radar) developed low cost, $100s, car 25 GHz 7 beam phased array car radar; about 2 million sold already, more than all the radars ever built up to a very few years ago. Wideband Low Profile Antenna: Tightly coupled dipole antenna (TCDA) provides 1:20 bandwidth with /40 thickness for the lowest  frequency. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output): Explained in simple physical terms instead of with heavy math; where it makes sense to use and how conventional arrays can do as well; Contrary to what is claimed MIMO array radars do not provide 1, 2 or 3 orders of magnitude better resolution and accuracy than conventional array radars; does not let us use fewer elements than conventional array; MIMO does not provide better barrage-noise-jammer, repeater-jammer or hot-clutter rejection than conventional array radars; does not provide better GMTI than conventional radar. Low cost Printed Electronics: 1.6 GHz printed diodes achieved (goal 2.4 GHz).  Electrical and Optical Signals on Same Chip: will allow data transfer at the speed of light; IR transparent in silicon. Biodegradable Arrays of Transistors or LEDs: Imbedded under skin for detecting cancer or low glucose. Quantum Radar: See stealth targets. New polarizations: OAMs, (Orbital Angular Momentum) unlimited data rate over finite band using new polarizations??                            Audience:  Directed toward those unfamiliar and familiar with phased array radars. The phased array basics is at a level for those not familiar with subject and covers subjects that experienced would gain from. The breakthroughs and future trends material is aimed at all levels of attendees. Have lectured around the world on the subject successfully to college students, professors, practicing engineers and scientists of all backgrounds.  Prerequisite: First three years of bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering or equivalent.                                                                                                                          Relevance: Tutorial covers both the basics of phased arrays radars and the latest developments and future trends in the technology relating to phased- array radars and radars. This is important to all radar engineers. Biography Dr. Eli Brookner MEE & DrSc Columbia Un ’55 &’62; BEE CCNY, ’53. Raytheon 1962-2014 (retired) ; Principal Engineering Fellow; worked on radars for air traffic control, military defense, space & navigation: on ASDE-X, ASTOR RADARSAT II, AGBR, major Space Based Radar programs, NAVSPASUR, COBRA DANE, PAVE PAWS, MSR, COBRA JUDY Replacement, THAAD, SIVAM, SPY-3, Patriot, BMEWS, UEWR, SRP, Pathfinder, Upgrade for >70 ARSRs, AMDR, Space Fence, 3DELRR. Before Raytheon: Columbia Un Electronics Research Lab. [now RRI], Nicolet, & Rome AF Lab; Awards: IEEE 2006 Dennis J. Picard Medal for Radar Technology & Application; IEEE ’03 Warren White Award; Journal of Franklin Institute Premium Award best paper, 1966; IEEE Wheeler Prize for Best Applications Paper, 1998. Fellow: IEEE, AIAA, & MSS. 4 books: Tracking, Phased Arrays & Radar. >10,000 attended courses in 25 countries. Banquet & keynote speaker 13 times. > 230 publications. > 100 invited. 6 papers in Books of Reprints. 9 patent
Attendees of this tutorial will also receive a copy of the book Practical Phased Array Antenna Systems” by Eli Brookner
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology
18 - 21 October 2016 Waltham, MA USA
Friday,  21 October 8:00 AM - 12:00 Noon Cambridge Room

Phased-Arrays: Basics, Past Accomplishments,

Amazing Breakthroughs and Future Trends

Dr. Eli Brookner: Raytheon Co. (Retired)

Overview This tutorial covers: Array basics; Digital Beam Forming (DBF): Advantages of DBF; limited scanning; advances in radars and phased-arrays leading up to the latest amazing breakthroughs and future trends, including metamaterials, graphene, DBF, micromachining, very low cost arrays, signal processing. Array Basics: Array phase scanning, embedded element gain, array factor, subarray time delay steering, thinned arrays, array elements, array blindness, mutual coupling, feeds; grating lobes due to forming multiple beams at the subarray level; how overlapped subarrays reduces these grating lobes. Digital beam forming (DBF) Basics: Advantages of; DBF at subarray and element level. Systems: 3, 4, 6 face “Aegis” systems developed by China, Japan, Australia, Netherlands, USA; Patriot now has GaN AESA providing 360o coverage; S/X-band AMDR provides 30 times the sensitivity and number of tracks as SPY-1D(V). Low Cost Packaging: Raytheon, MIT-Lincoln-Lab./MA-COM and Rockwell Collins developing low cost S and X-band flat panel arrays using COTS: PCBs and commercial packaging. Digital Beam Forming (DBF): Israel, Thales and Australia AESAs have an A/D for every element channel; Raytheon developing element level mixer-less direct RF A/D having >400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth, reconfigurable between S and X-band;  Lincoln Lab increases spurious free dynamic range of receiver plus A/D by 40 dB. Materials: GaN can now put 5X to 10X the power of GaAs in same footprint, 38% less costly, 100 million hr MTBF. Potential continuation of Moore’s Law: 1. via Spintronics - which could revolutionize computer architecture away from John von Neumann model, 2. via Memristor – which potentially allows one to do what human brain does in a shoe box instead of a computer the size of a city requiring a nuclear power plant, 3. via Graphene which has potential for Thz clock speed transistors, or 4. via Quantum Computing - which has the potential of orders of magnitude advance in computation power per 2 years. Metamaterials: 2-D Electronically Steered Antennas at 20 and 30 GHz size of laptop, cost goal only $1K  (remains to prove low cost and reliability), explained in simple terms, to be used in worldwide coverage satellite internet systems of the future, companies like Google, Qualcomm and O3b working on it; 2-20GHz stealthing by absorption simulated using <1 mm coating; target made invisible over 50% bandwidth at L-band; Army 250-505 MHZ conformal antenna with a /20 thickness; Focus beyond diffraction limit: 6X at 0.38 μm; Provides isolation: Between antennas having 2.5 cm separation equivalent to 1m separation; ; used for phased array WAIM; Negative Index of Refraction: For n-doped graphene, first such material found in nature. Very Low Cost Systems: Valeo Raytheon  (now Valeo Radar) developed low cost, $100s, car 25 GHz 7 beam phased array car radar; about 2 million sold already, more than all the radars ever built up to a very few years ago. Wideband Low Profile Antenna: Tightly coupled dipole antenna (TCDA) provides 1:20 bandwidth with /40 thickness for the lowest  frequency. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output): Explained in simple physical terms instead of with heavy math; where it makes sense to use and how conventional arrays can do as well; Contrary to what is claimed MIMO array radars do not provide 1, 2 or 3 orders of magnitude better resolution and accuracy than conventional array radars; does not let us use fewer elements than conventional array; MIMO does not provide better barrage-noise- jammer, repeater-jammer or hot-clutter rejection than conventional array radars; does not provide better GMTI than conventional radar. Low cost Printed Electronics: 1.6 GHz printed diodes achieved (goal 2.4 GHz).  Electrical and Optical Signals on Same Chip: will allow data transfer at the speed of light; IR transparent in silicon. Biodegradable Arrays of Transistors or LEDs: Imbedded under skin for detecting cancer or low glucose. Quantum Radar: See stealth targets. New polarizations: OAMs, (Orbital Angular Momentum) unlimited data rate over finite band using new polarizations??                            Audience:  Directed toward those unfamiliar and familiar with phased array radars. The phased array basics is at a level for those not familiar with subject and covers subjects that experienced would gain from. The breakthroughs and future trends material is aimed at all levels of attendees. Have lectured around the world on the subject successfully to college students, professors, practicing engineers and scientists of all backgrounds.  Prerequisite: First three years of bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering or equivalent.                                                                                                                          Relevance: Tutorial covers both the basics of phased arrays radars and the latest developments and future trends in the technology relating to phased-array radars and radars. This is important to all radar engineers. Biography Dr. Eli Brookner MEE & DrSc Columbia Un ’55 &’62; BEE CCNY, ’53. Raytheon 1962-2014 (retired) ; Principal Engineering Fellow; worked on radars for air traffic control, military defense, space & navigation: on ASDE-X, ASTOR RADARSAT II, AGBR, major Space Based Radar programs, NAVSPASUR, COBRA DANE, PAVE PAWS, MSR, COBRA JUDY Replacement, THAAD, SIVAM, SPY-3, Patriot, BMEWS, UEWR, SRP, Pathfinder, Upgrade for >70 ARSRs, AMDR, Space Fence, 3DELRR. Before Raytheon: Columbia Un Electronics Research Lab. [now RRI], Nicolet, & Rome AF Lab; Awards: IEEE 2006 Dennis J. Picard Medal for Radar Technology & Application; IEEE ’03 Warren White Award; Journal of Franklin Institute Premium Award best paper, 1966; IEEE Wheeler Prize for Best Applications Paper, 1998. Fellow: IEEE, AIAA, & MSS. 4 books: Tracking, Phased Arrays & Radar. >10,000 attended courses in 25 countries. Banquet & keynote speaker 13 times. > 230 publications. > 100 invited. 6 papers in Books of Reprints. 9 patent
Attendees of this tutorial will also receive a copy of the book Practical Phased Array Antenna Systems” by Eli Brookner
Tutorial Session 2: Phased-Arrays: Basics, Past Accomplishments, Amazing Breakthroughs and Future Trends
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems  and Technology
18 - 21 October 2016 Waltham, MA USA