Friday,  21 October 8:00 AM - 12:00 Noon Emerson Room

Digitally-Enabled T/R Modules for Next-Generation Phased Arrays

Dr. William H. Weedon, Applied Radar, Inc. Dr. Douglas J. Carlson, MACOM Technology Solutions Inc. Dr. John L. Volakis and Dr. Elias A. Alwan, ElectroScience Laboratory The Ohio State University Overview Digital technology has recently played an increasing role in enabling high-performance phased-arrays for radar, EW and communications applications. While Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs) has largely dominated T/R module technology since the mid-1990's, recent advances in advanced semi-conductors have allowed technologies such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) and even CMOS to replace GaAs phase shifters and allow phased arrays with more digital functionality at the element level, resulting in lower cost arrays that are lighter, easier to field, easier to manufacture, and to be used in many diverse applications other than traditional military radar. The tutorial will be given in three equal parts by the presenters as described below.

Digitally-Enabled T/R Modules for Next-Generation Phased Arrays, William H. Weedon, Applied Radar, Inc.

Approaches to T/R Modules for Active Antennas, Douglas J. Carlson, MACOM Technology Solutions Inc.

Wideband Beamforming Arrays for Communication and STAR capabilities, John L. Volakis & Elias A.  Alwan, ElectoScience Laboratory The

Ohio State University

Digitally-Enabled T/R Modules for Next-Generation Phased Arrays William H. Weedon, Applied Radar Inc. This segment of the tutorial will focus on COTS-enabled phased-array architectures including traditional MMIC arrays, subarray digital beamforming, and element-level digital beamforming. Our work on a COTS-based S-band digital arrays will be discussed, with a goal of an eventual all-digital array. The work will be placed in the context of other digital array technologies, and the advantages and challenges will be discussed. Biography Dr. William H. Weedon is President/CEO of Applied Radar, Inc, a company that he founded 20 years ago in 1996. Through the assistance of numerous SBIRs and other DoD and commercial work, the company has performed R&D on numerous phased-array technologies including antennas, T/R modules, frequency converters and digital back-ends. DoD customers have included the US Air Force, the US Army, US Navy, DARPA, SOCOM and MDA. He received a BSEE in 1989 and MSEE in 1990 from Northeastern University and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1994, and is a member of the Tau Beta Pi, Phi Kappa Phi, Eta Kappa Nu honor societies. Dr. Weedon is the Conference Vice-Chair of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology.

Approaches to T/R Modules for Active Antennas

Dr. Douglas J. Carlson, MACOM Technology Solutions Inc. The key enabling element of an Active Antenna is the Transmit/Receive Module.  There are many approaches to the realization of T/R Modules from basic block diagram configuration to the semiconductors used to implement the required RF functionality.  This session will review various approaches to T/R modules with a discussion of positives and negatives of each approaches.  RF functionality can be implemented in a broad array of technologies including Silicon, SiGe, Gallium Arsenide, and Gallium Nitride to name a few.  Trade-offs, both performance and cost, will be discusses.  And lastly, manufacturing methods for the construction of T/R modules will be review, with particular attention to approaches which facilitate planar, Tile based array approaches. Biography Dr. Douglas J. Carlson received his ScB in Electronic Material from Brown University in 1983 and his ScD in Electronic Materials from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1989. Dr. Carlson subsequently served on the research staffs of MIT and Bell Laboratory, Murray Hill, NJ.  His research focus was on fabrication and characterization of semiconductors and superconductors for microwave applications.  In 1990, Dr. Carlson joined M/A-COM, Inc. in its Advanced Semiconductor Division.  In his career at M/A-COM he has held Engineering, Operations and Product Management positions.  Dr. Carlson’s current position is Vice President of Strategy for RF and Microwave. In this role, Dr. Carlson is focused defining the Technology, Product and Market direction for the Company.  Dr. Carlson has published over 40 articles in peer reviewed Journals.  He has authored numerous invited papers and invited presentations on the topics of Advanced Semiconductors, Packaging, and Manufacturing.

Wideband Beamforming Arrays for Communication and STAR capabilities

John L. Volakis & Elias A.  Alwan, ElectoScience Laboratory The Ohio State University Future wireless communication systems will require much higher data rates. Concurrently, the RF spectrum will become more vulnerable due to signal fratricide and intentional malicious interference. Therefore, interference cancellation and mitigation techniques are required to establish secure communication for both government and commercial communication systems. Conventional interference suppression techniques are based on fixed or adaptive filtering and are limited in terms of their spectral and spatial filtering. That is, in presence of high interference levels, these techniques fall short to achieving enough suppression. Also, most interference suppression techniques require previous knowledge of the interferer’s position, channel, and signal identity. In realistic scenarios, and when communicating across wide bandwidths, interferers are unknown. Therefore, more advanced techniques are required to suppress interference and avoid signal fratricide. Concurrently, with the goal to utilize additional bandwidth, a well-known technique is to enable Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (STAR). STAR offers the advantage of reusing the transmit/receive bands, and therefore double throughput via a method referred to as full duplexing. A successful implementation STAR will lead to reduced spectrum requirements, a highly desired goal. However, implementation of STAR requires significant isolation between transmit and receive signals. As much as -90dB and even -120dB of isolation between transmit and receive signals is required. To do so, we must 1) cancel interference caused by the transmitter itself (as the receiver is typically collated with the receiver), 2) remove multipath transmitted signals, 3) suppress harmonics from power amplifiers (PAs), and 4) cancel noise from the transmit chain. From the literature, earlier versions of STAR architectures are narrowband, and therefore not useful for wideband communications systems.  To address the abovementioned challenges, we discuss a new class of wideband transceivers allowing, for the first time, a large bandwidth of 10GHz to be contiguously accessed. The proposed transceivers include: 1) ultra-wideband (UWB) phased array with low angle scanning, bandwidth reconfiguration, and controllable band rejection, 2) broadband digital beamformer with reduced power requirements using a much smaller number of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with power and cost reduction by a factor of 8 to 32,  3) a  novel hybrid frequency and code division multiplexing (CDM) with channel coding for secure high data rate communications to cover a contiguous 10GHz bandwidth with up to 40dB of additional gain and interference mitigation, and 4) wideband STAR implementation using four stages of cancellation to realize >120dB reduction in self-interference across a bandwidth >1 GHz. The cancellation stages are implemented at the transmit/receive antennas (using collocated transmit/receive antenna pairs), analog radio frequency (RF) section of the receiver, analog and digital baseband.  The realization of such a secure high data rate communications across a wide bandwidth is a game-changing capability. Biographies John L. Volakis is the Chope Chair Professor at The Ohio State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept. and also serves as the Director of the ElectroScience Laboratory. He was on the faculty of the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor from 1984 to 2003, serving as the Director of the Radiation Laboratory from 1998-2000. He is the author/co-author or 8 books, over 370 journal articles and 700 conference articles. Over the years, he carried out research in antennas, wireless communications and propagation, radar scattering and diffraction, computational methods, electromagnetic compatibility and interference, design optimization, RF materials, multi-physics engineering, bioelectromagnetics, and medical sensing.  Volakis has graduated/mentored nearly 80 doctoral students/post-docs with 34 of them receiving best paper awards at conferences. His service to Professional Societies include: 2004 President of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, twice the general Chair of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium,  Vice Chair of USNC/URSI Commission B, IEEE APS Distinguished Lecturer, IEEE APS Fellows Committee Chair, IEEE-wide Fellows committee member & Associate Editor of several journals. He is a Fellow of IEEE and ACES, and in 2004 he was listed by ISI among the top 250 most referenced authors. Among his awards are: The Univ. of Michigan College of Engineering Research Excellence award (1993), Scott award from The Ohio State Univ. College of Engineering for Outstanding Academic Achievement (2011), IEEE Tai Teaching Excellence award (2011), the IEEE Henning Mentoring award (2013), and the IEEE Antennas & Propagation Distinguished Achievement award (2014), Ohio State Univ. Distinguished Scholar Award (2016). Elias A. Alwan received the B.E. (summa cum laude) degree in computer and communication engineering from Notre Dame University Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon, in 2007, the M.E. degree in electrical engineering from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, in 2009, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from The Ohio State University (OSU), Columbus, OH, USA, in December 2013. Since December 2015, he is a Senior Research associate with the ElectroScience Laboratory, OSU.  He has been involved in a number of projects related to the design, fabrication, and measurement of antennas and RF systems, with emphasis on UWB applications. Currently, focus of his current research is on developing a new class of transceivers for high data rate secure communications with interference suppression capabilities. Simultaneous transmit and receive capabilities are also part of his research to achieve multipath and self-interference cancellation. Alongside, he is pursuing intensive research in millimeter wave systems which involves antenna arrays and RF front-ends design, fabrication, and packaging using latest state-of-the-art technologies.
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology
18 - 21 October 2016 Waltham, MA USA
Friday,  21 October 8:00 AM - 12:00 Noon Emerson Room

Digitally-Enabled T/R Modules for Next-Generation

Phased Arrays

Dr. William H. Weedon, Applied Radar, Inc. Dr. Douglas J. Carlson, MACOM Technology Solutions Inc. Dr. John L. Volakis and Dr. Elias A. Alwan, ElectroScience Laboratory The Ohio State University Overview Digital technology has recently played an increasing role in enabling high-performance phased-arrays for radar, EW and communications applications. While Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs) has largely dominated T/R module technology since the mid-1990's, recent advances in advanced semi-conductors have allowed technologies such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) and even CMOS to replace GaAs phase shifters and allow phased arrays with more digital functionality at the element level, resulting in lower cost arrays that are lighter, easier to field, easier to manufacture, and to be used in many diverse applications other than traditional military radar. The tutorial will be given in three equal parts by the presenters as described below.

Digitally-Enabled T/R Modules for Next-Generation Phased

Arrays, William H. Weedon, Applied Radar, Inc.

Approaches to T/R Modules for Active Antennas, Douglas J.

Carlson, MACOM Technology Solutions Inc.

Wideband Beamforming Arrays for Communication and STAR

capabilities, John L. Volakis & Elias A.  Alwan, ElectoScience

Laboratory The Ohio State University

Digitally-Enabled T/R Modules for Next-Generation Phased Arrays William H. Weedon, Applied Radar Inc. This segment of the tutorial will focus on COTS-enabled phased-array architectures including traditional MMIC arrays, subarray digital beamforming, and element-level digital beamforming. Our work on a COTS-based S-band digital arrays will be discussed, with a goal of an eventual all-digital array. The work will be placed in the context of other digital array technologies, and the advantages and challenges will be discussed. Biography Dr. William H. Weedon is President/CEO of Applied Radar, Inc, a company that he founded 20 years ago in 1996. Through the assistance of numerous SBIRs and other DoD and commercial work, the company has performed R&D on numerous phased-array technologies including antennas, T/R modules, frequency converters and digital back-ends. DoD customers have included the US Air Force, the US Army, US Navy, DARPA, SOCOM and MDA. He received a BSEE in 1989 and MSEE in 1990 from Northeastern University and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1994, and is a member of the Tau Beta Pi, Phi Kappa Phi, Eta Kappa Nu honor societies. Dr. Weedon is the Conference Vice-Chair of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology.

Approaches to T/R Modules for Active Antennas

Dr. Douglas J. Carlson, MACOM Technology Solutions Inc. The key enabling element of an Active Antenna is the Transmit/Receive Module.  There are many approaches to the realization of T/R Modules from basic block diagram configuration to the semiconductors used to implement the required RF functionality.  This session will review various approaches to T/R modules with a discussion of positives and negatives of each approaches.  RF functionality can be implemented in a broad array of technologies including Silicon, SiGe, Gallium Arsenide, and Gallium Nitride to name a few.  Trade-offs, both performance and cost, will be discusses.  And lastly, manufacturing methods for the construction of T/R modules will be review, with particular attention to approaches which facilitate planar, Tile based array approaches. Biography Dr. Douglas J. Carlson received his ScB in Electronic Material from Brown University in 1983 and his ScD in Electronic Materials from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1989. Dr. Carlson subsequently served on the research staffs of MIT and Bell Laboratory, Murray Hill, NJ.  His research focus was on fabrication and characterization of semiconductors and superconductors for microwave applications.  In 1990, Dr. Carlson joined M/A-COM, Inc. in its Advanced Semiconductor Division.  In his career at M/A-COM he has held Engineering, Operations and Product Management positions.  Dr. Carlson’s current position is Vice President of Strategy for RF and Microwave. In this role, Dr. Carlson is focused defining the Technology, Product and Market direction for the Company.  Dr. Carlson has published over 40 articles in peer reviewed Journals.  He has authored numerous invited papers and invited presentations on the topics of Advanced Semiconductors, Packaging, and Manufacturing.

Wideband Beamforming Arrays for Communication and STAR

capabilities

John L. Volakis & Elias A.  Alwan, ElectoScience Laboratory The Ohio State University Future wireless communication systems will require much higher data rates. Concurrently, the RF spectrum will become more vulnerable due to signal fratricide and intentional malicious interference. Therefore, interference cancellation and mitigation techniques are required to establish secure communication for both government and commercial communication systems. Conventional interference suppression techniques are based on fixed or adaptive filtering and are limited in terms of their spectral and spatial filtering. That is, in presence of high interference levels, these techniques fall short to achieving enough suppression. Also, most interference suppression techniques require previous knowledge of the interferer’s position, channel, and signal identity. In realistic scenarios, and when communicating across wide bandwidths, interferers are unknown. Therefore, more advanced techniques are required to suppress interference and avoid signal fratricide. Concurrently, with the goal to utilize additional bandwidth, a well-known technique is to enable Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (STAR). STAR offers the advantage of reusing the transmit/receive bands, and therefore double throughput via a method referred to as full duplexing. A successful implementation STAR will lead to reduced spectrum requirements, a highly desired goal. However, implementation of STAR requires significant isolation between transmit and receive signals. As much as -90dB and even -120dB of isolation between transmit and receive signals is required. To do so, we must 1) cancel interference caused by the transmitter itself (as the receiver is typically collated with the receiver), 2) remove multipath transmitted signals, 3) suppress harmonics from power amplifiers (PAs), and 4) cancel noise from the transmit chain. From the literature, earlier versions of STAR architectures are narrowband, and therefore not useful for wideband communications systems.  To address the abovementioned challenges, we discuss a new class of wideband transceivers allowing, for the first time, a large bandwidth of 10GHz to be contiguously accessed. The proposed transceivers include: 1) ultra-wideband (UWB) phased array with low angle scanning, bandwidth reconfiguration, and controllable band rejection, 2) broadband digital beamformer with reduced power requirements using a much smaller number of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with power and cost reduction by a factor of 8 to 32,  3) a  novel hybrid frequency and code division multiplexing (CDM) with channel coding for secure high data rate communications to cover a contiguous 10GHz bandwidth with up to 40dB of additional gain and interference mitigation, and 4) wideband STAR implementation using four stages of cancellation to realize >120dB reduction in self-interference across a bandwidth >1 GHz. The cancellation stages are implemented at the transmit/receive antennas (using collocated transmit/receive antenna pairs), analog radio frequency (RF) section of the receiver, analog and digital baseband.  The realization of such a secure high data rate communications across a wide bandwidth is a game-changing capability. Biographies John L. Volakis is the Chope Chair Professor at The Ohio State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept. and also serves as the Director of the ElectroScience Laboratory. He was on the faculty of the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor from 1984 to 2003, serving as the Director of the Radiation Laboratory from 1998-2000. He is the author/co-author or 8 books, over 370 journal articles and 700 conference articles. Over the years, he carried out research in antennas, wireless communications and propagation, radar scattering and diffraction, computational methods, electromagnetic compatibility and interference, design optimization, RF materials, multi-physics engineering, bioelectromagnetics, and medical sensing.  Volakis has graduated/mentored nearly 80 doctoral students/post-docs with 34 of them receiving best paper awards at conferences. His service to Professional Societies include: 2004 President of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, twice the general Chair of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium,  Vice Chair of USNC/URSI Commission B, IEEE APS Distinguished Lecturer, IEEE APS Fellows Committee Chair, IEEE-wide Fellows committee member & Associate Editor of several journals. He is a Fellow of IEEE and ACES, and in 2004 he was listed by ISI among the top 250 most referenced authors. Among his awards are: The Univ. of Michigan College of Engineering Research Excellence award (1993), Scott award from The Ohio State Univ. College of Engineering for Outstanding Academic Achievement (2011), IEEE Tai Teaching Excellence award (2011), the IEEE Henning Mentoring award (2013), and the IEEE Antennas & Propagation Distinguished Achievement award (2014), Ohio State Univ. Distinguished Scholar Award (2016). Elias A. Alwan received the B.E. (summa cum laude) degree in computer and communication engineering from Notre Dame University Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon, in 2007, the M.E. degree in electrical engineering from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, in 2009, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from The Ohio State University (OSU), Columbus, OH, USA, in December 2013. Since December 2015, he is a Senior Research associate with the ElectroScience Laboratory, OSU.  He has been involved in a number of projects related to the design, fabrication, and measurement of antennas and RF systems, with emphasis on UWB applications. Currently, focus of his current research is on developing a new class of transceivers for high data rate secure communications with interference suppression capabilities. Simultaneous transmit and receive capabilities are also part of his research to achieve multipath and self- interference cancellation. Alongside, he is pursuing intensive research in millimeter wave systems which involves antenna arrays and RF front- ends design, fabrication, and packaging using latest state-of-the-art technologies.
Tutorial Session 2: Smart Antennas
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems  and Technology
18 - 21 October 2016 Waltham, MA USA